Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are central to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis and may develop at inflamed mucosa. We investigated whether asthma, a disease of airway mucosal inflammation, was associated with elevated ACPA before RA diagnosis.


We performed a nested case-control study among women in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1976–2014) and NHSII (1989–2015). Blood was obtained on a subset (NHS: 1989–1990; NHSII: 1996–1999). Cases met 1987 ACR or 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria by medical record review and were classified as seropositive (ACPA+ or rheumatoid factor positivity) or seronegative by clinical laboratory testing at diagnosis. We identified RA cases with blood drawn before the date of RA diagnosis (index date), matching each to three controls by age, cohort, year, time from blood draw to index date, and menopause. Pre-RA ACPA elevation for cases was defined as >99th percentile of the control distribution on a research assay composed of autoantibodies targeting citrullinated protein epitopes or positivity on the second-generation commercial assay for cyclic citrullinated peptide. Asthma status and covariates were obtained through biennial questionnaires before blood draw. Conditional logistic regression estimated ORs and 95%CIs for RA by pre-RA ACPA and clinical serostatus, adjusted for matching factors, smoking pack-years, passive smoking, and body mass index (BMI).


We identified 284 incident RA cases and 849 matched controls; mean age at the index date was 61.2 years (SD 10.1). Blood was drawn 9.7 years (mean; SD 5.8) before the index date. We identified 96 (33.8%) RA cases with elevated pre-RA ACPA. At blood draw, 17.7% of pre-RA ACPA+ cases and 6.3% of matched controls (p = 0.0008) reported clinician-diagnosed asthma. After adjusting for matching factors, smoking pack-years, passive smoking, and BMI, asthma was significantly associated with pre-RA ACPA+ RA (OR 3.57, 95%CI 1.58,8.04). Asthma was not associated with overall RA (OR 1.45, 95%CI 0.91,2.31), but was significantly associated with seropositive RA (OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.01,3.18).


Asthma was strongly associated with ACPA elevation in blood drawn prior to RA diagnosis, independent of smoking. Chronic mucosal airway inflammation may contribute to ACPA development and RA pathogenesis.


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Citation:  Zaccardelli, A., Liu, X., Ford, J.A. et al. Asthma and elevation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies prior to the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 21, 246 (2019) doi:10.1186/s13075-019-2035-3

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